Thursday, September 8, 2016

Wine Infographic: Italian Wine Cheat Sheet

Next in the wine cheat sheet series:  Italy!

I've covered Chianti before, here.  The full collection of wine cheat sheets is here.

To see the Cheat Sheet in full size…
…in Internet Explorer, right click on it and select “open in new tab.”
…in Chrome, right click on it and select “open link in new tab.”
…in Firefox, right click on it and select “view image.”  

Friday, August 19, 2016

Lavender Beers for Summer

I am a well-documented lavender freak. I love the smell, I love the taste, and I always have to try any food or drink that contains it.  I’ve written before about lavender cocktails (here and here), I love my lavender earl grey tea, and I own a lavender cookbook. So of course I was excited when one of the new-ish Houston-area breweries – No Label in Katy, TX – released their “Forbidden Lavender” ale. Then I started noticing other beers that incorporate lavender and decided a post was in order.

I tasted all the ones I could find locally, then went searching online. Having run across just a handful of lavender beers in local shops, I was surprised to find so many available online and in other places. Popular flavor combinations are lavender with lemon, honey, vanilla, or other herbs. In my experience these are successful flavor pairings, whether in cocktails, non-alcoholic beverages, desserts, or other foods. A few of the beers in the list are seasonal or one-off creations that are not always available, but I included them for reference.


No Label Brewing:  Forbidden Lavender
Made with honey malt and vanilla. The smooth, strong lavender flavor gives a sweet impression. Not hoppy or bitter. 5.3% abv and 12.4 IBUs. I like this beer, as has everyone I've shared it with. Compared with the other locally available lavender beers it has the most lavender flavor, the most smoothness, the most sweetness, and the least hops. This is a good bet for the smoother, sweeter beer drinkers, not the IPA lovers.

Rogness: Joie d’Ete Saison
This Rogness Saison is more balanced than the in-your-face lavender of No Label (though I like the in-your-face approach too). The nose and palate have a definite impression of both lavender and lemon zest, as the label describes. This is less smooth and sweet than the Forbidden Lavender, more crisp from the citrus, and has a stronger bite at the end from the hops.


Dogfish Head:  Bière de Provence
Dogfish Head has possibly achieved the perfect balance between the No Label and Rogness takes on a lavender beer. The nose is sweet, floral, herbal, and lovely. The herbal notes come from marjoram and bay leaves. On the palate I get a richer, maltier flavor than I do from the Rogness, which is more crisp. The flavors are sweet and smooth up front, then the hops kick in a few seconds later. This beer has the strongest hops of the lavender beers I found, although it's still not very bitter at 30 IBUs. The strength of the lavender flavor is about equal to the lavender in the Rogness, but this one wins the prize for most overall complexity of flavor.

Texas Beer Refinery:  Herbed Melon Kolsch
This is TBR's Kolsch, "randalled" with lavender, rosemary, and melon, a one-off creation I discovered in their tap room one lucky Sunday afternoon. It's a little unfair to include it on this list, since you can't buy it in stores, and I don't know if they'll ever make it again, but it seemed wrong to leave it off. Strong lavender flavor dominates over the rosemary, and the melon is very subtle. Though the flavor is rich, the overall impression is clean, crisp, and refreshing. The hops are moderate – more than Forbidden Lavender, less than Dogfish Head, and about equal to Rogness. I hope TBR makes this again, because it's a great beer.


My verdict on the lavender beers I found locally is that they're all good, and you need to pick one based on your personal beer preferences. For smooth and sweet with no bitterness, go with No Label. For crisp and citrusy, choose Rogness. If you want a great overall combination of smooth maltiness balanced with a stronger kick of hops, Dogfish Head is for you. I like all of them, but Dogfish Head's version is my favorite.


Arbor Brewing:  Anahata Chakra Honey Lavender Ale
Beau's Beer:  St. Luke’s Verse (Lavender Gruit Ale)
BlackRocks Brewery:  Honey Lav 
Garrison Brewing:  Honey Lavender Ale
Gizmo BrewWorks:  Union Lavender Saison
Great Yorkshire:  Lavender Blonde
Indeed Brewing:  "LSD" (Lavender, Sunflower Honey, Dates) Ale
Samuel Adams:  Honey B's Lavender Ale
Squatters Craft Beer:  Bumpercrop Honey Ale
Stone Brewing:  Saison
Sunbeam Ales:  Honey and Lavender
Tin Pot Brewery:  Lavender Pot
Wolf Brewery:  Lavender Honey


Maine Mead Works:  Lavender Lemonade
Awestruck Cider:  Lavender Hops

Lavender beers are refreshing and perfect for summer, so it's a great time to try one.  Is my list missing any? Are there more available in my area than I thought? Have you tried some that I haven’t? Let me know in the comments!

Friday, August 5, 2016

Cider + Wine = Something Different to Drink This Summer

When I was sitting at the bar at J. Henry's a couple of weeks ago, I noticed a funny looking wine bottle in their cooler. I asked to read the label, and then I knew I had to try it. It was Grafter Rosé, a small-batch cider from Texas Keeper, made with 91% Rome Beauty apples and 9% Tempranillo grapes from Texas. (Sorry the picture is orange. I was having living room lighting issues.)


I've said before that I'm not a big cider fan, but that's because I usually find them too sweet. This cider is dry. It also looks just like a rosé wine, so I guessed it would taste somewhat similar. Here's a tasting note:

  • Appearance:  translucent, vivid pink
  • Aroma:  apples, fresh red berries, floral notes, hint of vanilla
  • Palate:  dry, with tart apples as the primary flavor, plus berries and floral tastes, lightly sparkling (the French call this pétillant, the Italians call it frizzante), a hint of tannin from the grapes, and low alcohol at 8.3%

Basically this tastes like a dry cider with some rosé wine mixed in, and it's a very nice combination. The wine grapes add complexity and texture (the tiny amount of tannin) that ciders don't normally have. It's light and refreshing, and being dry and low in alcohol makes it perfect for summer, when heavier, sweeter, higher-alcohol wines are less appealing. 

I love that the bottle shows a sweetness scale to let you know what you're getting. (It may have been inspired by the International Riesling Foundation's sweetness scale. Ciders and Rieslings are both tricky to purchase because they might be sweet or dry, and it's not always easy to tell which they are. Scales like this are a wonderful label innovation.)

If you already like cider, I think you'll enjoy this unusual combination of cider and wine. If you're not a cider fan, I'd encourage you to try it anyway. I had high hopes for Grafter Rosé and I was not disappointed! (And after you drink it you can reuse the cool bottle!)

Friday, July 22, 2016

Beer Infographic: Map of Houston-Area Craft Breweries

I've had a list of Houston craft breweries that I've been updating for a quite a while, but I decided we needed a map. Here's the map with the list below it.

I count 29 30 craft breweries in the Houston area, either currently open or planning to open soon.
Did I miss any?

To see the map full size…
…in Internet Explorer, right click on it and select “open in new tab.”
…in Chrome, right click on it and select “open link in new tab.”
…in Firefox, right click on it and select “view image.”  

And here's the list with links:

11 Below Brewing (Houston)
8th Wonder Brewery (Houston) 
Apogee Brewing (Houston) 
B-52 Brewing (Conroe)
Back Pew Brewing (Porter)
Bakfish Brewing Co (Pearland)
Brash Beer (Houston)
Buffalo Bayou Brewing (Houston) 
City Acre Brewing (Houston)
Cyclers Brewing (Montgomery) 
Eureka Heights Brew Co (Houston)
Fetching Lab Brewery (Alvin)
Fort Bend Brewing (Missouri City) 
Galactic Coast Brewing (Dickinson) 
Galveston Bay Beer Company (Dickinson)
Galveston Island Brewing (Galveston)
Holler Brewing Co (Houston)
Ingenious Brewing (opening in 2016 in north Houston)
Karbach Brewing (Houston) 
Lone Pint Brewery (Magnolia) 
No Label Brewing (Katy) 
Saint Arnold Brewing (Houston) 
Saloon Door Brewing (Webster)
Sigma Brewing Co (Houston)
Southern Star Brewing (Conroe)
Spindletap Brewery (NW Houston)
Texas Beer Refinery (Dickinson) 
Texian Brewing (Richmond) 
Town In City Brewing (Houston Heights)   
Under the Radar Brewery (Houston)

Friday, July 15, 2016

Happy 200th Post!

I started this blog in September 2012 and just reached 200 posts. To celebrate, here are some of the most popular posts, plus a few that are just my favorites.

The wine cheat sheets are always the most popular posts, which is good since they're the main reason I started the blog. Here's a link to all 26 wine cheat sheets (and more coming soon!).

Other very popular posts include:
Top 6 Things to Know About Wine Vintages
Smelling, Swirling, and Training Your Nose
Acid 101
Tannin 101
Is your wine over the hill?
Wine Glasses: What Kind, Why, and Where to Get Them
Would you drink wine with a moldy cork?
Introduction to the Grapes of Texas
The cheapest, easiest, laziest way to cook with wine

And definitely the best beer post is:
The Ultimate Guide to 51 Pumpkin Ales in Houston

Here's to 200 posts and many more to come!

Thursday, July 7, 2016

Wine Infographic: Bordeaux Wine Cheat Sheet

Next in the wine cheat sheet series:  Bordeaux!

I'll be the wine educator on a river cruise through Bordeaux in 2017. Want to come along? We have spaces available!

If you're interested in learning about Bordeaux, you may also want to check out the French Wine Cheat Sheet and the Botrytis (Noble Rot) Cheat Sheet.

The full collection of wine cheat sheets is here.

To see the Cheat Sheet in full size…
…in Internet Explorer, right click on it and select “open in new tab.”
…in Chrome, right click on it and select “open link in new tab.”
…in Firefox, right click on it and select “view image.”  

Friday, June 17, 2016

Experiencing Bordeaux in Books and Movies

When I travel, I like to learn as much as I can about the place I'm visiting before I go. A fun way to do that is through books and movies. Here's a collection of fiction and non-fiction books and movies I'm interested in reading and watching before I visit Bordeaux in 2017. (I'm assembling a group to go on a tour, and we still have spaces available. Email me if you're interested!)

I've marked the ones I've read or seen (*) and added a personal review, and I'll update this post as I make progress on the list.

Non-fiction books (wine, travel, and history)

Intoxicating Southern France: Bordeaux & Dordogne Spotlight, by PJ Adams
Part travel guide, part history, part memoir.

The Road from the Past, Traveling through History in France, by Ina Caro
A driving tour of France from Provence to the Loire Valley, passing through Bordeaux. Focuses on historical sites.

*The Billionaire’s Vinegar, by Benjamin Wallace
The story of several now-infamous bottles of Bordeaux which may or may not have been owned by Thomas Jefferson.  The investigation uncovers massive levels of wine fraud of old bottles at the highest levels of wine collecting.  Suspenseful, fun to read, and covers many areas of the wine world – from history, to auctions and collecting, to storing and tasting.  I loved reading it, and a film version is in pre-production.

Wine and War: The French, the Nazis, and the Battle for France's Greatest Treasure, by Donald Kladstrup
The story of how winemakers partnered with the French Resistance to protect France’s vineyards and wine from pillaging by the Germans. Hailed as a “non-fiction historical thriller” that’s accessible and fun to read while covering lots of information about World War II.

Noble Rot: A Bordeaux Wine Revolution, by William Echikson
The story of the modernization of the production and marketing of Bordeaux wine in the last few decades and the impact of global economics.  (Noble rot refers to a fungus involved in the making of Bordeaux’s finest dessert wines.)

Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Life, by Alison Weir
Biography of a woman “renowned in her time for being the most beautiful woman in Europe, the wife of two kings … [and] one of the great heroines of the Middle Ages.” Mother of Richard “the Lion-Hearted,” she was at the center of the battle between England and France for the region of Aquitaine, which includes Bordeaux.


Adventures on the Wine Route, A Wine Buyer's Tour of France, by Kermit Lynch
Described as “colorful” and “irreverent” and recognized for its descriptions of cuisine and countryside.

A Vineyard in the Dordogne: How an English Family Made Their Dream of Wine, Good Food and Sunshine Come True, by Jeremy Josephs
The story of the challenges an English family faces when they buy an old chateau and vineyard outside of Bordeaux and attempt to begin a new life and run a successful winery.

Bordeaux wine reference books

The Essential Guide to Bordeaux Wines, by the Bordeaux Wine School
Covers the essential information about Bordeaux’s history, chateaux, wine trade, grape blends, and food pairings.

*The Finest Wines of Bordeaux, A Regional Guide to the Best Chateaux and Their Wines, by James Lawther
This super reference book and overall handbook for Bordeaux covers history, winemaking, and vintages, but the bulk of the guide is made up of profiles of Bordeaux producers and descriptions of their wines. It's also a great buying guide and includes value-priced recommendations.

Fiction:  Novels

A Bordeaux Dynasty, by Francoise Bourdin
A family saga revolving around the family’s vineyard in Bordeaux.

The Irresistible Inheritance of Wilberforce (aka Bordeaux), by Paul Torday
By the author of Salmon Fishing in the Yemen.  Novel about a rich young man who falls in love with Bordeaux and the world of wine.

Fiction:  Mystery/Thriller

*Treachery in Bordeaux, by Jean-Pierre Alaux
A novella, first of the “winemaker detective” book series which inspired a French TV series. I found it thin on mystery, but it includes some good descriptions of Bordeaux and the surrounding countryside, along with plenty of interesting technical information about winemaking. The TV show is better than the book…see Blood of the Vine below.

*The Vintage Caper, by Peter Mayle
By the author of the bestseller A Year in Provence and A Good Year. This wine heist mystery travels from Los Angeles to Bordeaux to Provence. Don't expect a thriller, but do expect a well-written story with good descriptions of French cities, French food, and French wine. This is a quick an enjoyable read.

*Deadly Slipper:  A Novel of Death in the Dordogne, by Michelle Wan
First in a series of mysteries set in the small towns and countryside to the east of Bordeaux. The main characters are an orchidologist and an interior designer who are thrown together to solve the mystery of a missing sister, and orchids are a clue. This novel has an intriguing mystery and well-drawn characters. It also gives you a feeling for the landscape, food, and communities in this region. I enjoyed reading it, and I may read the subsequent books in the series (there are 3 more).

Death in Bordeaux, by Allan Massie
Crime novel set in the 1940s, starring a police detective and depicting the impact of World War II on Bordeaux.

The Bordeaux Connection, by John Paul Davis
Modern-day thriller set in the UK and France.

Bordeaux: The Bitter Finish, by Janet Hubbard
Second in the series, the first being Champagne: The Farewell. Mystery starring a female bodyguard who is protecting a famous wine critic. Depicts Bordeaux society and has lots of discussions of fine wine. (I read Champagne and found it to have a serviceable mystery plot, but it was not particularly well written. I'm still planning to read Bordeaux though.)

Fiction:  Mythology

Huon of the Horn, by Andre Norton
A 1950s adaptation of a very old Charlemagne legend, originally translated into English in 1534. It has been described as a lesser medieval adventure in the vein of the Arthurian legends or the Song of Roland. "A tale of that Duke of Bordeaux who came to sorrow at the hands of Charlemagne and yet won the favor of Oberon, the elf king, to his lasting fame and great glory."

Fiction:  Historical Romance

*Practical Widow to Passionate Mistress, by Louise Allen
Historical romance set in the 1820s(-ish) in Bordeaux. -- Now that I've read this, I know that it really doesn't deserve to be on this list. It begins in Bordeaux, but the main characters leave for England right away, and the rest of the book takes place there.

Documentary Films

*Red Obsession (2013)
Examines the Chinese love for Bordeaux wine, which has had a huge impact on the global wine market. I really enjoyed the film and wrote a full review here. It's currently available to stream on Netflix.

Movies about or set in Bordeaux

You Will Be My Son (Tu seras mon fils) (2011)
Set and filmed at an actual working chateau in St. Emilion (right bank of Bordeaux), this drama is about a chateau owner who decides his son should not succeed him in running the business. The actual vineyard workers appear in the film. This article has more information about the filming. Available to stream on Netflix.

*Blood of the Vine (2013)
French TV series based on the "Winemaker Detective" series of books mentioned above. In French with English subtitles. I've only seen the first episode so far, but I really liked it. The oenologist uses clues in the wine to help the police solve the case, and you get to see quite a bit of the city of Bordeaux and the surrounding countryside and vineyards. I will watch more of this! It's currently available to stream on Amazon.

*He Loves Me…He Loves Me Not (2002)
A dark romantic comedy starring Audrey Tautou. In French with English subtitles. I don't want to talk abut the plot because of possible spoilers, so I'll just say that this film has an intriguing twist that makes it unpredictable, and I liked it. It is set and shot in Bordeaux, but it doesn't showcase the area aside from a few street scenes.

Goya in Bordeaux (1999)
A biopic of the artist Goya told from the perspective of his last years when he lived in Bordeaux.

*The Lion in Winter (1968)
King Henry II (Peter O’Toole) and his queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine (Katharine Hepburn), "engage in a battle of royal wits that pits elder son Richard (Anthony Hopkins) against his brothers, while the cunning King Philip of France (Timothy Dalton) takes advantage of the internal fracturing in his bid to destroy their kingdom." Set in 12th century Britain, a key point of negotiation is Eleanor’s land holdings in Aquitaine, the French province that includes Bordeaux. The film won an Oscar for Hepburn's performance and for the screenplay.

I really enjoyed watching this. It gives you a snapshot of history from the personal perspective of the characters. It's based on a play, which you can tell from the verbal sparring. And if you like verbal sparring and wit, you will love this, because sharp dialogue is the defining feature of the film. It is dizzying. Of course the acting is also superb.

Movies set elsewhere, but filmed in Bordeaux

Hansel and Gretel: Witch Hunters (2013)
Most of the film was shot in Germany, but Bordeaux was used for some of the city scenes of early 19th century Europe.

*Queen Margot (1994)
"The film’s famous St. Bartholomew Day massacre scene was filmed in Saint Michel and Saint Pierre, the city’s oldest districts, whose narrow, winding streets and medieval buildings are perfectly reminiscent of 16th century Paris, where the real massacre occurred."

Vidocq (2001)
An action/crime/fantasy film where Bordeaux stands in for early 19th century Paris.

*Valmont (1989)
Bordeaux also stands in for Paris in this romantic drama directed by Milos Forman and based on the same novel that inspired Dangerous Liaisons and Cruel Intentions. Features a young Colin Firth!

Second Chances (Nos Retrouvailles) (2012)
Uses Bordeaux in a contemporary setting. (I can't find any region 1 DVDs or streaming sources for this one...)

Thérèse (2012)
A drama starring Audrey Tautou which was filmed almost entirely in the Gironde region of France, near Bordeaux. Tells the story of a provincial housewife in the 1920s who wants to escape her marriage.

La Révolution Française (1989)
A 2-part history of the French Revolution filmed in Bordeaux.

*Highlander (1992-1998)
In this TV series, Bordeaux stands in for Paris, where Duncan MacLeod lives on a houseboat in the Seine.

This article adds some perspective to Bordeaux as a filming location.

You may also be interested in:
Tour Bordeaux with a French Wine Scholar
Sorting Out the Names: A Brief History of Bordeaux
Wine Infographic: French Wine Cheat Sheet

Friday, June 3, 2016

Visit Granbury, taste great Texas wine.

Recently I wrote about the grapes that are thriving in Texas (Introduction to the Grapes of Texas). Roussanne is one of them. This white grape is native to France and appears in the white wines of France's Rhone Valley. It also appears in the red wines of the region, since it is one of the few white grapes allowed to be blended into Rhone's red wines in small quantities. Roussanne is primarily found in southern France, but its presence is growing in Texas, particularly in the Texas High Plains AVA

Last year I visited Barking Rocks Winery outside of Granbury, Texas and tasted a wonderful Roussanne. It has aromas of citrus, crisp peach, cantaloupe, and floral notes. On the palate it's dry and balances smooth-and-fruity with crisp-tart-refreshing. At Barking Rocks they feel strongly that Roussanne is right for Texas. They put it right on the label:

I have to agree. I liked all the wines at Barking Rocks, and I recommend you visit and taste for yourself.

The Granbury area (southwest of Fort Worth) makes a great weekend getaway from Houston (or Dallas or Austin). You can visit Dinosaur Valley State Park and see the dino tracks, stay at the historic Nutt House, catch a show at the opera house (we saw Spamalot!), shop on the town square, and definitely visit Barking Rocks. If you like beer, check out Revolver Brewing too.

Thursday, May 26, 2016

A Simple Greek Meal with Greek Wine

This week kicked off a project relating to the history of wine, which I’ll be working on for the next year and a half. (More on that soon.) To mark the occasion I decided to drink a wine from one of the oldest winemaking countries in the world. The Greeks have made wine since at least 600 BC or so, and possibly much earlier.

I bought this bottle in the market section of one of my favorite Mediterranean restaurants, and it turns out to be fairly mysterious. In examining the label, you can see many references to specific regions (Macedonia, Mount Athos, etc.), but none of these names correspond to any lists of Greek wine appellations I have found. I've concluded this wine is classified at the "table wine" level, but if you're a Greek wine expert please post in the comments and help me out.

Another confusing thing is the grape. No grape is mentioned on the bottle, but there is an indigenous Greek variety called Agiorgitko, which appears very similar to the wine's name, Agioritikos (adding a "g," losing the "s"). However, the Agiorgitko is mainly grown in the Peloponnese, which is on the other side of Greece from Macedonia, where this wine is from.

When all else fails, consult the winery's web site! Actually I should have started there, but in this case it wouldn't have helped much. The Protopapas winery doesn't list this wine on its site. It does helpfully list all the grapes the estate grows, which include: Syrah, Merlot, Cabernet Frank [Franc], Cabernet Sauvignon, Georgina, Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Traminer. This rules out Agiorgitiko and suggests that my initial impression of the wine resembling a Cabernet Sauvignon was probably correct. "Agioritkos" is probably just a proprietary name for the wine, unrelated to a grape.


Here's the full tasting note:

  • Appearance:  deep ruby/garnet
  • Aromas:  cherry, blackberry, fresh and dried fruits, mint/menthol, cedar, and it develops a hint of olives as it breathes
  • Palate:  dry, medium acid, medium-to-high tannin, medium-to-high alcohol (14%), flavors of red and black fruits
  • Finish:  short 

The wine has very nice aromas and flavors. At 8 years old I was impressed with how much tannin was still noticeable and how much the wine continued to mellow and improve in the glass. I might even recommend decanting or aerating it. A slight detraction was that the alcohol seemed a bit high to be in perfect balance, but making sure to serve it slightly chilled (~65 degrees) would correct most of that. I paid $17 for the bottle, and I would do it again.

A good rule of thumb for wine pairing is to eat foods that come from the same region or country as the wine, so a Greek dinner was on the menu. Because it was a Tuesday night, I needed it to be fast and easy. I’ve noticed lately that HEB has begun carrying more pre-made Greek/Mediterranean foods in their larger stores. I picked up a container of baba ganoush (eggplant dip) and one of dolmas, both of which were very tasty. I love dipping chunks of red bell pepper in my baba ganoush. There was also tabouli which I’ll try next time. I didn’t see any freshly made pita, but I found naan, which I think is just as good (or better).

Because I expected the wine to be big and flavorful (and it was) I really wanted to serve lamb, but again, it had to be quick and easy. My grocery store stocks lamb scallopini, which is thin slices of lean lamb and is very quick to prepare. Throw the lamb slices in a bowl, sprinkle them liberally with Greek seasoning (I used Penzey’s blend, but whatever combination you like of salt, pepper, spices, and herbs would do fine), and drizzle with olive oil. Use your fingers to evenly distribute and rub in the seasoning, and let the lamb sit while you get everything else ready. I opted to roast some onions, because they sounded really good with the lamb. Just before you’re ready to eat, heat a little olive oil in a non-stick skillet and sauté the lamb for 1-2 minutes per side, which will leave it slightly pink in the center.

I was surprised at how quick and easy it was to assemble a restaurant-quality Greek meal at home, by combining a few pre-made items with a fast lamb sauté. You could easily get fancier and make a quick pan sauce for the lamb if you wanted. And everything paired nicely with the wine. I haven’t explored Greek wine very much, so this will be a good incentive for me to drink more of it and learn more about it.

Friday, May 13, 2016

Sorting Out the Names: A Brief History of Bordeaux

The names of the regions in and around Bordeaux can be confusing. For one thing, Bordeaux is the name of a city, a winemaking region, and a wine. In addition, many names get tossed around in relation to this part of France:  Bordeaux, Aquitaine, Gascony, Gironde, Dordogne. Let’s take a brief trip through history that will help us figure out what everyone is talking about.  Here’s the general area in question:

The city of Bordeaux and surrounding areas.

Pre-History to the Middle Ages

Paleolithic humans lived in this area and created the famous Lascaux cave paintings not far away, which are more than 17,000 years old. In pre-Roman times the area’s settlers were descended from the Iberians and/or Basque people of Spain, rather than the Celts who inhabited most of France at that time. We know these people as the Aquitani. In the 1st century BC the Romans conquered most of France during the Gallic Wars. They understood the region as “Aquitania” and kept the name when they controlled the province.

Roman map of Gaul before the Gallic wars.*

Roman map of Gaul after they conquered it.*

Middle Ages to the Renaissance

In the early Middle Ages the Visigoths took over as Roman rule disintegrated, but were soon defeated by the Franks (c. 500 AD). The area surrounding the present day city of Bordeaux became the Duchy of Aquitaine, and the area to the south became the Duchy of Vasconia or Gascony. These two united under Felix of Aquitaine in 660.

The semi-independent Kingdom of Aquitaine was made up of Gallo-Romans north of the Garonne River and Basques to the south of the river. When the kingdom was threatened by the Muslim Umayyad Caliphate invading from Spain, it submitted to the rule of the Frankish kingdom next door in exchange for help. The Franks won a great battle here at the Battle of Tours in 732, led by Charles Martel (“The Hammer” – he’s the tough, smart general), grandfather of Charlemagne. Without this victory, the expanding Arab empire could have conquered much of Europe.

The (Frankish) Carolingian Empire officially began with Charlemagne’s crowning in 800, though the Franks had ruled France and Germany for a long time already. For the next few centuries the region of Aquitaine was passed around between various other ruling kingdoms, and the title “King of Aquitaine” (“Aquitaine” now including Vasconia/Gascony) was more honorary than literal.

Aquitaine officially joined France in 1137 when Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine married Louis VII King of France, but the marriage was annulled in 1152. In 1154 Eleanor married King Henry II of England, and Aquitaine became part of England. (Eleanor and Henry’s sons include Richard I (the Lionhearted), famed for his military prowess in the Crusades, and John, who sucked his thumb and annoyed Robin Hood. They were both kings of England after Henry II – first Richard, then John.)

Eleanor marries Louis VII.*

King John wants his Mummy (Eleanor).*

The French and English fought over Aquitaine (and other things) for roughly 300 years, but Aquitaine remained English until the end of the Hundred Years’ War in 1453, when the French won it back for good at the Battle of Castillon. (1453 was a big year for important territory changing hands.) During these centuries Aquitaine and England developed close ties, including a booming wine trade. Profits from Aquitaine were a large source of income for England.

Aquitaine’s borders shifted periodically during the Middle Ages, as land was won and lost. It was also commonly known as Guyenne, though the boundaries of Guyenne varied, and the two names were not always synonymous.

French Revolution to Today

Guyenne and Gascony were French provinces until 1790, when the system of Departments was introduced as a result of the French Revolution. The new French leadership figured that a reorganization of the administrative districts would break up old power centers and loyalties and give them better control of the country. 

Today France is divided into 18 administrative regions. Several regions have recently been combined, and have temporary names until a new name is chosen. The region encompassing Bordeaux, previously known as Aquitaine, has merged with the neighboring regions of Limousin and Poitou-Charentes, forming the new region temporarily named Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes. By October 1, 2016 this region will have its new official name. Bordeaux, the capital of the former Aquitaine, will remain the capital of this new region, which will be the largest in France.

The 18 administrative regions contain 101 Departments. Bordeaux is the capital of its Department, Gironde. The Dordogne Department sits immediately to the east (upriver) and is closely associated with the area, particularly as a common tourist destination along with Bordeaux. (The Lascaux Caves are in the Dordogne.) From the time of the earliest kingdoms until now, Bordeaux has always been the largest and most important capital city of this evolving region.

Sorting Out the Names:  Maps are Helpful

Here’s your quick-reference checklist for the nomenclature.

Aquitaine = the name of the region surrounding Bordeaux since pre-Roman times. The name remains part of the French administrative region today (Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes), but could change later this year.

The former French administrative region of Aquitaine.*

The new region of Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes.*

Gascony = the region south of old Aquitaine, near the present France/Spain border, which merged with Aquitaine during the Middle Ages. The term is still used in reference to the southern part of this general area. 

Gironde = an administrative Department within the region of Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes, with the city of Bordeaux as its capital. The Gironde Department encompasses the Bordeaux wine region. Gironde is also the name of the estuary formed where the Dordogne and Garonne rivers come together and flow into the Atlantic Ocean (see below). 

Bordeaux, both the city and the wine region, are in the Gironde Department.*
(In green -- click to enlarge.)

Bordeaux = the historic and modern capital city of the Aquitaine region (now Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes) and the capital city of the Gironde Department. It is also the name of the wine region.

The city and the wine region.*

Dordogne = the administrative Department immediately to the east of the Gironde, but the name is often heard in conjunction with these other areas. Also the name of 1 of the 2 rivers flowing through Bordeaux. 

Garonne = the other river that flows through Bordeaux. To the southeast the Lot et Garonne Department bears the river’s name.

The Dordogne River and the Garonne River come together to form the Gironde Estuary.*

*Most of these pictures are stolen shamelessly from Wikipedia. A few of them are stolen shamelessly from other places.

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